10 Kasinas (Devices): (pp. 139-165)
The ten Kasinas are simple physical phenomena upon which one can meditate. The
first four are the traditional elements: earth, air, fire, and water. These can
be used by people of all dispositions. The next four are on the four colors,
blue, red, white, and yellow. These should be used by people with hateful
natures. The last two are space and light. These can also be used by people of
10 Asubhas (Objects of Impurity):
The ten objects of impurity are various sorts of corpses. Meditating on corpses
is useful is reducing lust. This practice should only be followed under the
guidance of a master. Below is a list of the asubhas and who will find them
Swollen Corpse: Those who lust after beauty of form.
Discolored Corpse: Those who lust after beauty of the skin and complexion.
Festering Corpse: Those who lust after a sweet-smelling body, using perfumes.
Fissured Corpse: Those who lust after the firmness and solidity of the body.
Mangled Corpse: Those who lust after fullness of the flesh, such as the breasts.
Dismembered Corpse: Those who lust after graceful movements of the body.
Cut & Dismembered Corpse: Those who lust after perfection of the joints of
Blood-stained Corpse: Those who lust after beauty produced by adornments.
Worm-infested Corpse: Those who are attached to the idea that the body is
"me" or "mine."
Skeleton: Those who lust after perfection of the teeth and nails.
10 Anussatis (Recollections):
The first six anussatis (pp. 183-208) are meditations upon the Buddha, the
Dharma, the Sangha, the devas, morality, and generosity. These meditations are
most useful for those with devotional natures. These practices will gladden the
mind when it is in distress and will increase faith and virtuous tendencies. The
first three are particularly useful in reducing fear and dread.
The next anussati is concentration on breathing (pp. 227-258). It is a
particularly useful meditation, being
the only one
the Buddha described which can lead to both mindfulness and insight. This
is the only meditation which can lead a practitioner from beginning practice all
the way to enlightenment. Concentration on breathing is especially recommended
for those who are deluded or excitable.
The eighth anussati is meditation on death (pp. 209-215). This is useful for
people who are intelligent. This meditation leads to a deep realization of
The ninth anussati is mindfulness of the body (pp. 216-226). This is useful for
those with lustful natures. (This is probably the only meditation of these forty
which will be useful to Westerners in reducing lust, as the other meditations
for reducing lust all require a decaying human corpse, and these are difficult
to come by.)
The last anussati is meditation on tranquility (pp. 259-262). Not surprisingly,
this leads to peace and tranquility. It is useful for those who are intelligent.
4 Brahma-Viharas (Excellent
Qualities): (pp. 263-313)
The four brahma-viharas are metta (friendliness or loving-kindness), compassion,
sympathetic joy, and even-mindedness. Meditation on these qualities leads to an
increase of them, causing excellent conduct in interactions with the external
world. They are "an essential preliminary to the whole training of the religious
aspirant" (p. 263). Meditation on these qualities is especially useful for those
with hateful natures.
Ahare patikkula sanna (Perception of
the Loathsomeness of Food): (pp. 314-317)
This meditation is designed to eliminate the greed and sensual excitement which
is often caused by food. This practice is most suited to those who are
Catudhatuvavat-thana (Analysis of the 4
"The main object of this meditation is to free the mind from the conception of
individuality in regard to the physical body and to realize its elemental nature
with no thought of personal distinction" (p. 318). The meditation consists of
noticing how the body is merely a synthesis of physical elements, without
entity. This practice is most suited to those who are intelligent.
4 Arupas (Formless Spheres): (pp.
These are four formless stages which are developed in turn after all
psychological impediments are removed. In order, they are the sphere of infinite
space, the sphere of infinite consciousness, the sphere of nothingness, and the
sphere of neither perception nor non-perception. The goal of these stages is
complete self-possession, free from all thoughts of the world. This is not
nirvana, but it is very close to nirvana. These formless spheres are suitable
for people of all dispositions, after they have reached the fifth absorption
All page numbers refer to Paravahera Vajirana Mahathera, Buddhist
Meditation in Theory and Practice (Malaysia: Buddhist Missionary
Society, 1962). Back to top