Two: Description of the Metres

 

2.7 Variations

The normal opening in both metres is described as being ⏓−⏑− , but there are a significant number of occasions when variations are seen (especially in the early period), the most common being ⏓−−− (the so-called Vedic opening), but also we come across ⏓−⏑⏑, ⏓⏑−− & −⏑⏑−. Others occur only very rarely.

In the break (syllables 5-7) the pattern −⏑⏑ prevails (85% approx), with resolution occasionally giving ,⏑⏑⏑⏑. Other patterns that occur in this position are ⏑⏑−, −⏑−, & ⏑⏑⏑. Rarely we also find the patterns −−⏑ and ⏑−⏑, so that the 6th syllable, though normally regarded as light, may occasionally be heavy.

Sometimes an extended form is produced by resolution at the first syllable, which then gives a line of 12 (13) syllables - note that the pattern of the cadence will help identify the metre in these cases.

Another extended form may be produced by a line having a caesura at the 5th syllable, and restarting from the same syllable, giving the line:

     5 & 5

⏓−⏑−¦−,⏑⏓¦−⏑−(⏑)×

Occasionally replacement takes place, whereby two light syllables are presumed in the 6th & 7th positions, and replaced by one heavy one. The line then has one syllable less than expected (see 1: 16 above for an example):

       6 & 7

−⏑−¦−−¦−⏑−(⏑)×

Examples: early Tuṭṭhubha, Khaggavisāṇasutta Sn I:3; the "Aṭṭhaka" suttas Sn IV:2-5; and the Tuṭṭhubha verses in Pārāyanavagga Sn V. The second of the extended forms described above is used extensively in the Vatthugāthā to Nālakasutta Sn III:11 (vs 679ff). Late Tuṭṭhubha tends to conform to the fixed patterns that emerged during this time and which are described below (for more on the development of the Tuṭṭhubha, see the Appendix).

Example of early Tuṭṭhubha from Guhaṭṭhakasutta (Sn IV: 2) (vs 776-779):   read

−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−
Passāmi loke pariphandamānaṁ,

⏑−⏑−¦−−⏑¦−⏑−−
pajaṁ imaṁ taṇhāgataṁ bhavesu,

−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−
hīnā narā maccumukhe lapanti -

⏑−⏑−¦−−⏑¦−⏑−−
avītataṇhāse bhavābhavesu.

 

⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−
Mamāyite passatha phandamāne,

−−⏑−¦−⏑−¦−⏑−−
macche va appodake khīṇasote,

−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−
etam-pi disvā amamo careyya,

⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−
bhavesu āsattim-akubbamāno.

 

⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−
Ubhosu antesu vineyya chandaṁ,

−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−
phassaṁ pariññāya anānugiddho,

⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−
yad-attagarahī tad-akubbamāno:

⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−
na lippatī diṭṭhasutesu dhīro.

 

−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−
Saññaṁ pariññā vitareyya oghaṁ,

⏑−⏑−¦⏑⏑⏑¦−⏑−−
pariggahesu muni nopalitto,

−−⏑−¦−⏑−¦−⏑−−
abbūḷhasallo caraṁ appamatto,

−−⏑−¦−−⏑¦−⏑−−
nāsiṁsatī lokaṁ imaṁ parañ-cā ti.

 

Mixed Tuṭṭhubhajagatī, from Ratanasutta (Khp 6:8):   read

⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−   Jagatī
Yathindakhīlo paṭhaviṁ sito siyā

⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−   Jagatī
catubbhi vātehi asampakampiyo,

⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−   Tuṭṭhubha
tathūpamaṁ sappurisaṁ vadāmi,

−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−   Jagatī
yo ariyasaccāni avecca passati -

⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−   Tuṭṭhubha
idam-pi Sanghe ratanaṁ paṇītaṁ:

−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−   Tuṭṭhubha
etena saccena suvatthi hotu!

 

Extended Tuṭṭhubha, from Nālakasutta (Sn III: 11) (vs 679-680):   read

−−⏑−¦−,⏑⏑⏑⏑¦−⏑−−
Ānandajāte tidasagaṇe patīte

−−⏑−¦−,⏑⏑⏑⏑¦−⏑−−
sakkacca Indaṁ sucivasane ca deve,

−−⏑−¦−,⏑⏑⏑⏑¦−⏑−−
dussaṁ gahetvā atiriva thomayante

⏑⏑−⏑⏑¦−−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−
Asito isi addassa divāvihāre. 1st syllable is resolved, 4th syllable is short, we might have expected to find a reading isī.01

−−⏑−¦−,⏑⏑⏑⏑¦−⏑−−
Disvāna deve muditamane udagge,

−−⏑−¦−,⏑⏑⏑−¦−⏑−−
cittiṁkaritvā idam-avocāsi tattha: Perhaps we should understand avŏcāsi m.c.02

−−⏑−¦−,⏑⏑⏑⏑¦−⏑−−
Kiṁ devasangho atiriva kalyarūpo?

−−⏑−¦−,⏑⏑⏑⏑¦−⏑−−
Dussaṁ gahetvā bhamayatha kiṁ paṭicca?

 

 

last updated: March 2006